Edible Forest Gardening:
(according to Ethan Roland of appleseedpermaculture.com) - [An edible forest garden is] a consciously designed ecosystem [following permaculture principles] that mimics the structure and function of temperate forests. [It is] a perennial polyculture of multipurpose[, usually perennial] plants [where] each species fulﬁlls at least 3 functions.
(had some difficulty finding a solid definition for this term, so here's my take) - A grouping of organisms (plants, animals, fungi, etc.) that are known to grow well together in a particular habitat and successional phase.
Since there isn't much research on more than a few well-known guilds, I'm taking a very experimental approach to find out what works or doesn't work. My guilds are also going to start out simply with plants and fungi growing in my wood chip mulch. Animals such as bees, ducks, and goats are planned for later.
(according to Robert Hart)
1) A ‘canopy’ layer consisting of the original mature fruit trees.
2) A ‘low-tree’ layer of smaller nut and fruit trees on dwarfing root stocks.
3) A ‘shrub layer’ of fruit bushes such as currants and berries.
4) A ‘herbaceous layer’ of perennial vegetables and herbs.
5) A ‘ground cover’ layer of edible plants that spread horizontally.
6) A ‘rhizosphere’ or ‘underground’ dimension of plants grown for their roots and tubers.
7) A vertical ‘layer’ of vines and climbers.
Layers 1, 2, and 3 have already been planned.
Plants and seeds to be used:
|Latin Name||Common Name||Layer(s)||Function(s)||Use(s)||Notes|
|Claytonia perfoliata||Miner's Lettuce||Ground Cover||Ground Cover, Shade||Edible||Annual|
|Polymnia edulis||Yacon ||Root ||Edible||Not hardy Z5 |
|Symphytum officinale||Comfrey ||Herb, Root ||Bees, Nutrient Accumulator ||Medicinal, Food, Biomass ||Allantoin|
|Urtica dioica||Stinging Nettles ||Herb ||Insectary ||Edible||Nutritious |
|Camassia quamash||Quamash ||Root ||Bees ||Edible|
|Crambe maritima||Sea Kale ||Ground Cover ||Bees ||Edible|
|Chenopodium capitatum||Strawberry Spinach, Strawberry Blite ||Herb ||Edible||Annual |
|Chenopodium bonus-henricus||Good King Henry ||Herb ||Edible|
|Asparagus officinalis||Asparagus ||Herb ||Bees, Insectary, Nematocide ||Edible|
|Cynara scolymus||Artichoke ||Herb ||Bees, Butterflies ||Edible||Not hardy Z5 |
|Levisticum officinale||Lovage ||Herb ||Edible, Essential Oil, Medicinal |
|Artiplex hortensis||Orach, Mountain Spinach ||Herb ||Edible ||Annual |
|Astragalus membranaceus||Huang Qi ||Herb ||Legume, Bees, Butterflies ||Medicinal ||Not hardy Z5|
|Armoracia rusticana||Horseradish ||Root ||Bees, Flies, Beetles, Nutrient Accumulator ||Edible, Fungicide, Repellent |
|Tropaeolum majus||Nasturtium ||Vine ||Aphids||Edible, Insecticide ||Annual|
|Dioscorea batatas||Chinese yam ||Vine ||Edible, Biomass |
|Ribes uva-crispa||Gooseberry ||Shrub ||Thorns, Birds ||Edible |
|Lonicera caerulea||Honeyberry ||Shrub ||Edible |
|Vaccinium corymbosum||Blueberry ||Shrub ||Bees ||Edible ||Needs acidic soils|
|Apios americana ||Ground Nut ||Vine, Root ||Legume ||Edible |
|Helianthus tuberosus ||Jerusalem Artichoke ||Herb, Root ||Bees ||Edible ||Inulin root |
|Fragaria x ananassa ||Strawberry ||Ground Cover ||Edible |
|Passiflora incarnata ||Maypops ||Vine ||Bees||Edible, Medicinal|
|Actinidia arguta ||Hardy kiwi ||Vine ||Bees ||Edible |
|Humulus lupulus||Hops ||Vine ||Edible, Medicinal, Fiber, Paper |
|Portulaca oleracea||Purslane ||Ground cover||Edible |
|Borago officinalis||Borage||Herb ||Bees, Insect Repellent ||Edible ||Not hardy Z5|
|Rheum x cultorum||Rhubarb||Herb ||Insecticide ||Edible |